Analysis and documentation of facilitators and barriers at school: an analysis model from an ICF perspective


From an ICF perspective, observing facilitators and barriers is a fundamental step in building inclusive school settings. This article proposes a model of analysis and documentation, based on general levels (the school, organization, resources and services) and specific levels (the classroom, compensatory tools, relationships between classmates and with parents): the design of inclusive contexts requires the strengthening of the former and the reduction of the latter.  The educational intervention, formalized in the Individualized Education Program, is unlikely to achieve the objectives without careful consideration of possible facilitators and barriers.  The model is based on the principle that any element in the school context can become a facilitator or a barrier, depending on the pupil and the type of disability, the relational climate in the classroom, the teaching activity, the pupil’s and peers developmental stage, family characteristics, etc.