This paper presents a critical approach to address the concept of learning to learn. It is emphasized the qualitative nature of such an approach and the challenge it represents for education. The focus is on learning to learn as a core strategic competence for lifelong learning, since it can mobilize reflective and proactive behaviours. Learning to learn is considered ecologically according to Gregory Bateson’s theories, in which persons are part of living system. The core of the discourse is placed on the need to move beyond a mere functionalist approach to embrace a broader umanistic and constructive view of learning, in which learning to learn is a fundamental resource, due to its transformative and evolutionary nature, for persons' fulfilment and active citizenship.