This study explores the relationship between school climate variables and students’ resilience and social-emotional skills. Eight aspects of the school climate were examined, including Teacher Support for Learning, Teacher Support for Relationship Building, Social and Civic Learning, Social Inclusion and Student Support, Sense of Physical and Social-Emotional Security, Physical Surroundings, Antisocial Behaviors, and Parent and Student Engagement. These aspects were correlated with resilience dimensions, including Personal Responsibility, Optimistic Thinking, Goal-Directed Behavior, Decision Making, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, Self-Awareness, and Self-Management. To collect data, two questionnaires were administered: the Comprehensive School Climate Inventory and the Resilient Attitude Assessment Questionnaire (Biasi, Castellana, De Vincenzo, 2023, 2022). The study involved 1352 students from lower secondary schools. The results of the study showed statistically significant correlation values for all the dimensions considered. Particularly, the impact of Parent and Student Engagement, Social Inclusion and Student Support, Teacher Support for Learning, Social and Civic Learning, and Teacher Support for Relationship Building is notably significant in elucidating resilience. These dimensions hold strategic importance in formulating interventions aimed at fostering student well-being.