The Sport Participation and Environment Measure (SPEM)


Sport activities are an important resource for promoting the education, well-being, and social inclusion of all children. However, children with disabilities participate in these activities less than their peers due to various physical and social barriers in their environment. A full understanding these barriers is crucial for everyone involved in managing and organizing sports activities. Nevertheless, there are some deficiencies in the tools used for assessment. To address these shortcomings, the Sport Participation and Environment Measure (SPEM) was developed. The SPEM is a questionnaire useful for assessing sport participation and parental perception of environmental factors that may hinder children with and without disabilities aged 5 to 12 years. In this study, the questionnaire validation process was described, which occurred in three phases. In the first phase, a group of experts assessed content validity. In the second phase a pilot study was conducted to evaluate face validity. In the third phase, the final version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 482 parents to assess its psychometric properties.