The issue of educational evaluation has long attracted the attention of stakeholders, engaging them in debates of a different nature (Scriven, 1991; Corsini, 2015). This contribution emphasizes comparative evaluation and the levels within which this takes place (OECD, 2013). The objective is to explore the implications that system evaluation, particularly the standardized learning evaluation, has in three different national contexts, Italy, Finland and Spain. In fact, from the beginning of the new millennium to today, the OECD-PISA survey has measured the literacy of those preparing to complete compulsory schooling (Asquini, 2011; OECD, 2019). What are the effects of standardized surveys on learning in Italy, Finland and Spain according to the National Project Managers of the OECD-PISA programme? By listening to the voices of the national leaders of the investigation into fifteen-year-olds, as well as privileged witnesses, we attempt to reconstruct the state of the art.